# Harry Buhrman presents Quantum software with an application to position-based cryptography

On 2018-05-24 16:00:00 at S5, MFF UK Malostranske nam. 25, Prague 1

36. Prague Computer Science Seminar

LECTURE ANNOTATION

Quantum computers hold great promise as the next generation hardware. They are

based on counter-intuitive phenomena from quantum mechanics, like

superposition,

interference, and entanglement. The basic building block of a quantum computer

is a quantum bit or qubit, which unlike a classical bit can be in a quantum

superposition (a simultaneous combination) of both 0 and 1. In the 1990s it was

demonstrated that, for specific problems, quantum algorithms run on a quantum

computer can massively outperform classical computers. The famous quantum

algorithm of Peter Shor shows that a quantum computer can factor large numbers

and thus can break most of modern-day cryptography. Recent years have witnessed

important breakthroughs in the development of the hardware for a quantum

computer. IBM announced a 50 qubit machine and google recently advertised a 72

qubit device. With this growth rate we will have 100 -200 qubits within five

years and large-scale quantum computers are expected within 5-10 years.

What can we compute on a quantum computer and how can it be useful? In this

talk

I will give a short introduction to quantum computing and quantum software and

will highlight an application to cryptography. On 20 July 1969, millions of

people held their breath as they watched, live on television, Neil Armstrong

set

foot on the Moon. Yet Fox Television has reported that a staggering 20 % of

Americans have had doubts about the Apollo 11 mission. Could it have been a

hoax

staged by Hollywood studios here on Earth? Position-based cryptography may

offer

a solution. This kind of cryptography uses the geographic position of a party

as

its sole credential instead of digital keys or biometric features.

LECTURER

Harry Buhrman is a professor of algorithms, complexity theory, and quantum

computing at the University of Amsterdam (UvA), group leader of the Quantum

Computing Group at the Center for Mathematics and Informatics (CWI), and

executive director of QuSoft, a research center for quantum software, which he

co-founded in 2015. He built the quantum computing group at CWI, which was one

of the first groups worldwide and the first in the Netherlands working on

quantum information processing. Buhrman’s research focuses on quantum

computing, algorithms, and complexity theory. He co-developed the area of

quantum communication complexity (distributed computing), and demonstrated for

the first time that certain communication tasks can be solved (exponentially)

more efficiently with quantum resources. This showed that quantum computers can

not only speed up computation, but also communication – which opened up a

whole new application area of quantum information processing. Buhrman

co-developed a general method to establish the limitations of quantum

computers,

and a framework for the study of quantum query algorithms, which is now

textbook

material. He obtained a prestigious Vici-award and has coordinated several

national and international quantum computing projects. He is a member of the

Scientific Advisory Board of QUTE-EUROPE and QUIE2T (European) and of CIFAR,

IQC, INTRIQUE (Canadian). He started and chaired the first steering committee

for QIP, the main international conference on quantum information

processing. Current research interests are: Quantum Computing, Quantum

Information Theory, Quantum Cryptography, Computational Complexity Theory,

Kolmogorov complexity, Distributed Computing, Computational Learning Theory,

and

Computational Biology.

LECTURE ANNOTATION

Quantum computers hold great promise as the next generation hardware. They are

based on counter-intuitive phenomena from quantum mechanics, like

superposition,

interference, and entanglement. The basic building block of a quantum computer

is a quantum bit or qubit, which unlike a classical bit can be in a quantum

superposition (a simultaneous combination) of both 0 and 1. In the 1990s it was

demonstrated that, for specific problems, quantum algorithms run on a quantum

computer can massively outperform classical computers. The famous quantum

algorithm of Peter Shor shows that a quantum computer can factor large numbers

and thus can break most of modern-day cryptography. Recent years have witnessed

important breakthroughs in the development of the hardware for a quantum

computer. IBM announced a 50 qubit machine and google recently advertised a 72

qubit device. With this growth rate we will have 100 -200 qubits within five

years and large-scale quantum computers are expected within 5-10 years.

What can we compute on a quantum computer and how can it be useful? In this

talk

I will give a short introduction to quantum computing and quantum software and

will highlight an application to cryptography. On 20 July 1969, millions of

people held their breath as they watched, live on television, Neil Armstrong

set

foot on the Moon. Yet Fox Television has reported that a staggering 20 % of

Americans have had doubts about the Apollo 11 mission. Could it have been a

hoax

staged by Hollywood studios here on Earth? Position-based cryptography may

offer

a solution. This kind of cryptography uses the geographic position of a party

as

its sole credential instead of digital keys or biometric features.

LECTURER

Harry Buhrman is a professor of algorithms, complexity theory, and quantum

computing at the University of Amsterdam (UvA), group leader of the Quantum

Computing Group at the Center for Mathematics and Informatics (CWI), and

executive director of QuSoft, a research center for quantum software, which he

co-founded in 2015. He built the quantum computing group at CWI, which was one

of the first groups worldwide and the first in the Netherlands working on

quantum information processing. Buhrman’s research focuses on quantum

computing, algorithms, and complexity theory. He co-developed the area of

quantum communication complexity (distributed computing), and demonstrated for

the first time that certain communication tasks can be solved (exponentially)

more efficiently with quantum resources. This showed that quantum computers can

not only speed up computation, but also communication – which opened up a

whole new application area of quantum information processing. Buhrman

co-developed a general method to establish the limitations of quantum

computers,

and a framework for the study of quantum query algorithms, which is now

textbook

material. He obtained a prestigious Vici-award and has coordinated several

national and international quantum computing projects. He is a member of the

Scientific Advisory Board of QUTE-EUROPE and QUIE2T (European) and of CIFAR,

IQC, INTRIQUE (Canadian). He started and chaired the first steering committee

for QIP, the main international conference on quantum information

processing. Current research interests are: Quantum Computing, Quantum

Information Theory, Quantum Cryptography, Computational Complexity Theory,

Kolmogorov complexity, Distributed Computing, Computational Learning Theory,

and

Computational Biology.

External www: http://praguecomputerscience.cz/?l=en&p=36